Tianjin Xiali is a Chinese automobile manufacturer that was founded in 1986 as a joint venture between the Tianjin Automobile Industry Corporation and Toyota. The company was known for producing affordable compact cars for the domestic market, notably the Xiali A-Series, which was based on the 1980s Toyota Tercel. Xiali cars were once among the best-selling vehicles in China, particularly in the 1990s and early 2000s. However, the brand struggled to maintain its market position in the face of increasing competition and rising consumer expectations for quality and features. Additionally, the company faced scrutiny over safety and emission standards. These factors led to declining sales, and production of Xiali-branded cars was halted in 2015. The Tianjin FAW Xiali Automobile Company, as the parent company was known after further investment from FAW Group, continued producing vehicles under other brand names. Other: Xander
Yugo was a brand of automobiles from Yugoslavia (now Serbia) produced by Zastava Automobili, which was founded in 1953. The Yugo brand itself was introduced in the 1980s when Zastava began exporting cars to the United States through its subsidiary, Yugo America. The most notable product under the Yugo brand was the Yugo GV, a compact car that gained recognition for being one of the cheapest cars available in the American market. However, the brand quickly developed a negative reputation for poor quality, reliability, and performance. Economic instability and conflict in Yugoslavia during the 1990s also disrupted production and export. In 2008, after years of decline, Zastava ceased production of Yugo-branded cars. The following year, Zastava was purchased by Fiat, which ended all production at the Zastava plant in 2017, marking the definitive end of the Yugo brand. Other: Yellow.
Zavod imeni Likhachova, more commonly known as ZIL, was a major Russian automobile, truck, military vehicle, and heavy equipment manufacturer founded in 1916 as the Moscow Automotive Society (AMO). Its most prominent product was probably the ZIL-111 limousine, a symbol of Soviet power and luxury, often used by high-ranking government officials. Despite this prominence, ZIL faced economic challenges after the collapse of the Soviet Union and struggled to compete in the changing market. Its production was severely decreased by the 2000s, with the last passenger car produced in 2002. The company officially ceased operations in 2013, after a failed attempt to modernize its production lines and produce a new model. Others: Zehr, Zimmer, and Zip.
Since the 1800s, numerous car makers have emerged, but most have either failed or merged over time. In the early days, starting a manufacturing business was relatively simple, but lack of funding, technical expertise, and growing competition meant that only the strongest survived. Presently, new companies like Tesla, Rivian, and Lucid Motors, specializing in electric vehicles, are actively competing against well-established manufacturers, each striving to secure their position in an exceedingly competitive market.